1. The following steps are used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?
a. Collect DNA
b. Digest with a restriction enzyme
c. Perform electrophoresis
d. Lyse cells
e. Add ethidium bromide

2. Which of the following can be used to make recombinant DNA?
a. Protoplast fusion
b. Tungsten bullets
c. Microinjection
d. Transformation
e. All of the above

3. The reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase is:
a. DNA -> mRNA
b. mRNA -> cDNA
c. mRNA -> protein
d. DNA -> DNA
e. DNA-> tRNA

4. The reaction catalyzed by DNA polymerase is:
a. DNA -> mRNA
b. mRNA -> cDNA
c. mRNA -> protein
d. DNA -> DNA
e. DNA-> tRNA

5. If you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is:
a. Transformation of _E. coli_ with Ti.
b. Splicing Ti into a plasmid
c. Transformation of an animal cell
d. Inserting Ti into _Agrobacterium_
e. None of the above

6. Suicide genes can be controlled by the flagella-gene operator. This would result in the death of:
a. All cells
b. Motile cells
c. Cells making sex pili
d. Cells at 37°C
e. Conjugating cells

7. The value of cDNA in genetic engineering is that:
a. It lacks exons
b. It lacks introns
c. Itıs really RNA
d. It lacks uracil
e. None of the above

8. A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is:
a. Look for a bacterium that makes the improved enzyme
b. Mutate bacteria until one makes the improved enzyme
c. Determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme
d. Synthesize the gene for the improved enzyme
e. None; the enzyme can't be produced

9. You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. You add radioactively labeled nucleotides to the thermalcycler. After 3 replication cycles, what percentage of the DNA single-strands are radioactively labeled?
a. 0%
b. 12.5%
c. 50%
d. 87.5%
e. 100%

10. A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a:
a. Library
b. Clone
c. Vector
d. Southern blot
e. PCR

11. Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is called a:
a. Library
b. Clone
c. Vector
d. Southern blot
e. PCR

12. A technique used to identify bacteria carrying a specific gene is:
a. Southern blot
b. Transformation
c. Cloning
d. Western blot
e. None of the above

13. A restriction fragment is:
a. A gene
b. A segment of DNA
c. A segment of RNA
d. An RNA transcript containing introns
e. None of the above

14. The following steps must be performed for a bacterium to produce a human protein, what is the third step?
a. DNA ligase
b. Restriction enzyme
c. Translation
d. Reverse transcription
e. Transformation

15. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of _E. coli_ for making a human gene product?
a. Endotoxin may be in the product
b. It doesn't secrete most proteins
c. Its genes are well known
d. It can't process introns
e. None of the above