Photosynthetic Bacteria


Biology 240
"We are part of an intricate network that comes from the original bacterial takeover of the Earth. Microbes invented all of life's essential chemical systems, all of its rules for living and change. Microbes put oxygen into the atmosphere, they built huge structures of rock that changed the face of the Earth, and through symbiosis-they created us."
-Lynn Margulis

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Study Help & Assignments

Syllabus Fall 2018.pdf
About studying & conduct


·Quizzes in Canvas
Journal Article
·Bacteria Report
·Unknown, Exercise 50, report
·M & M (Disease report)
·Extra Credit
·Writing guidelines


Visual Lab Study Guide 

Study help

Class handouts & quizzes
Study questions for each chapter.
Mastering Microbiology

Careers in Biology

BIOL 240—General Microbiology

Microbiology affects almost every aspect of human existance. Everyone, scientist or not, needs to have some familiarity with the activities of microorganisms. Knowledge of microbial physiology and genetics has contributed much of what we know today about the fundamental nature of all living organisms.

Microbiology will introduce you to the diversity of microorganisms, their role in nature, and their role in human health and disease. The principles you will study in microbiology are applicable to all biology–related professions including human medicine, veterinary medicine, ecology, and biotechnology.

You will need the Lab Manual for all labs. The first lab is provided here if you don't have your Lab Manual for August 16.

Grades | Test keys

Tortora, G., B. Funke, and C. Case. Microbiology: An Introduction, 13th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2019.

Johnson, T. and C. Case. Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology, 12th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2019.


What do you want on your lettuce?


What's in the milk?

Feeding snakes?

Petting E. coli?

What's in your chia?

October 15 is World Handwashing Day

to reduce childhood mortality rates related to respiratory and diarrheal diseases


For Fun & Reference

Try a clinical problem
Chocolate microbiology
Beer microbiology
Coffee microbiology
Skyline Fungi
Skyline Algae
That statue on campus
Vacation reading
Careers in Biology

Current Events:
West Nile
Influenza activity
Prions & Mad cows
Anthrax primer

Web links
Microbe Zoo

Colorized SEMs
Microbial Ecology
Society for Industrial Microbiology
American Society for Microbiology

Winogradsky column used to culture photosynthetic bacteria.
Microbial ecology, the study of the relationship between microorganisms and their environment, began with the work of Sergei Winogradsky in the 1880s. Winogradsky pursued the study of Microbiology because he was "impressed by the incomparable glitter of Pasteur's discoveries." Winogradsky was one of the first to show how bacteria help recycle vital elements for use by other organisms. A Winogradsky column is an enrichment culture that simulates the muddy habitat of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Colonies of purple and green sulfur bacteria are visible in the photograph at the top of the page, however, a variety of organisms can be cultured depending on their exposure to light and the availability of oxygen. Read more about it.

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