artist: Ali Farka Toure
song title: Ai Bine (circa 6 minutes)
CD title: The River
comments: a musician in the griot/jali lineage. What is African about this Example ? Note of the leisurely time sense, lack of harmonic or bass line progression, and the treatment of pitched instruments (guitar, bass) as single-note percussion instruments. Relaxed polyrhythmic feel.
artist: Baaba Maal & Mansour Seck
recording date: c. 1984-5
song title: Muudo Hormo (c. 6 min)
CD title: Djam Leelii
comments: the guitars are obviously a European or American influence; what is African? Note the nasal quality of the singing, the balaphone (a kind of xylophone, technically in the family of idiophones), the tuning of the balaphone is slightly different from standard Western tuning; there is a slow three against four polyrhythm.
artist: Salif Keita
country: Mali, France
date: c. 1995
song title: Tekere (c. 6 min)
CD title: Folon . . . The Past
comments: another musician in the griot/jali lineage. Call & response? Downward melodic contour?
artist: Ladysmith Black Mambazo
country: South Africa
song title: Uzube Nami Baba
comment: Note the "Halleluja, Amen" at the end; Christian influence.
artist: Thomas Mapfumo
comments: guitar playing echoes mbira style. Political lyrics denouncing corruption, advocating for black rule of Zimbabwe, which at the time was white-ruled Rhodesia.
READ THIS EXCELLENT INTERVIEW WITH MUSICOLOGIST THOMAS TURINO
Examples 6 & 7
Artist: King Sunny Ade & His African Beats
Comments: Stevie Wonder harmonica solo on #6; traditional percussion & some reggae influence. The genre is known as Juju.
Artist: Paul Simon
Country: USA, recorded USA, SA
CD: Graceland, c. 1986
Artist: Angelique Kidjo, b. Benin. Languages: English, Fon
CD: Oremi, c. 1998, recorded in the USA & South Africa
Title, track 9: Voodoo Child
Composer: Steve Reich, American.
Genre: Art music
Title: Nagoya Marimbas
Comment: African conceptual influence (musical interest based on relations of shifting patterns)
A few questions to focus your listening:
Be able to name three traditional characteristics that continue in contemporary popular music in Africa.
Briefly identify or describe an example of musical ideas from different cultures being combined in the 20th-century.
Briefly identify an example of cross-cultural borrowing that is pre-20th-century. (1-3 sentences)