Study Guide for Exam 1 Chapters 1-4


Chapter 1


  1. Explain the importance of the terms interdisciplinary and applied as they help to define the field of human development. (p. 5)
  2. Explain the role of theories in understanding human development, and describe three basic issues on which major theories take a stand. (pp. 5–7)
  3. Explain the four assumptions that make up the human development point of view. (pp. 7–12)
  4. Trace historical influences on modern theories of human development, from medieval times through the early twentieth century. (pp. 13–15)
  5. Describe theoretical perspectives that influenced human development research in the mid twentieth century, and cite the contributions and limitations of each. (pp. 15–20)
  6. Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development, noting the contributions of major theorists. (pp. 20–25)
  7. Identify the stand that each contemporary theory takes on the three basic issues presented earlier in this chapter. (p. 26)
  8. Describe the research methods commonly used to study human development, citing the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 27–31)
  9. Contrast correlational and experimental research designs, and cite the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 31–34)
  10. Describe three research designs for studying development, and cite the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 34–37)
  11. Discuss ethical issues related to lifespan research. (pp. 37–39)

Chapter 2


  1. Describe the relationship between phenotype and genotype. (p. 44)
  2. Explain the function of chromosomes. (p. 44)
  3. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule, and explain the process of mitosis. (pp. 44–45)
  4. Explain the process of meiosis. (p. 45)
  5. Explain how the sex of the new individual is determined. (p. 46)
  6. Identify two types of twins, and explain how each is created. (p. 46)
  7. Describe basic patterns of genetic inheritance, and indicate how harmful genes are created. (pp. 46–49)
  8. Explain genetic imprinting and how it helps researchers understand certain genetic patterns.  (p. 49)
  9. Describe Down syndrome and common abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. (pp. 50–51)
  10. Discuss reproductive choices available to prospective parents and the controversies surrounding them. (pp. 51–56)
  11. Explain genetic counseling and who should seek it. (p. 52)
  12. Describe prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine. (pp. 52–56)
  13. Describe family functioning from the perspective of ecological systems theory, including direct and indirect influences and the family as a dynamic, changing system. (pp. 58–59)
  14. Discuss the impact of socioeconomic status and poverty on family functioning. (pp. 59–61)
  15. Summarize the roles of neighborhoods, towns, and cities in the lives of children and adults. (pp. 61–62)
  16. Explain how cultural values and practices, public policies, and political and economic conditions affect human development. (pp. 62–66)
  17. Describe concepts that indicate “how” heredity and environment work together to influence complex human characteristics. (pp. 68–71)

Chapter 3


  1. List the phases of prenatal development, and describe major milestones of each. (pp. 76–81)
  2. Define the term teratogen, and summarize the four factors that affect the impact of teratogens on prenatal development. (pp. 81–82)
  3. List agents known or suspected of being teratogens, and discuss evidence supporting the harmful impact of each. (pp. 82–88)
  4. Discuss maternal factors other than exposure to teratogens that can affect the developing embryo or fetus. (pp. 88–89)
  5. Describe the three stages of labor. (p. 91)
  6. Discuss the baby’s adaptation to labor and delivery, and describe the appearance of the newborn baby. (pp. 91–93)
  7. Explain the purpose and main features of the Apgar Scale. (p. 93)
  8. Discuss the concept of natural childbirth, noting the typical features of a natural childbirth program, the benefits of the natural childbirth experience, and the role of social support in the natural childbirth process. (pp. 93–94)
  9. Discuss the benefits and concerns associated with home delivery. (pp. 94–95)
  10. Describe circumstances that justify the use of fetal monitoring, labor and delivery medication, and cesarean delivery, and explain any risks associated with each. (pp. 95–96)
  11. Describe the risks associated with preterm, and small-for-date births, and review the developmental outlook for infants born under such circumstances. (pp. 96–97)
  12. Describe several interventions for preterm infants, including infant stimulation and parent training. (pp. 97–99)
  13. Summarize findings from the Kauai study relating to the long-term consequences of birth complications. (pp. 99–100)
  14. Name and describe major newborn reflexes, noting the functions served by each, and discuss the importance of assessing newborn reflexes. (pp. 100–101)
  15. Describe the five infant states of arousal, with particular attention to sleep and crying. (pp. 102–105)
  16. Describe the newborn baby’s responsiveness to taste, smell, touch, sound, and visual stimulation. (pp. 105–107)
  17. Describe Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), and explain its usefulness. (p. 107)
  18. Describe typical changes in the family unit after the birth of a new baby. (p. 108)

Chapter 4

  1. Describe changes in body size, body proportions, and muscle–fat makeup during the first 2 years of life. (pp. 114–116)
  2. Describe the development and functions of neurons and Glial cells. (pp. 116–117)
  3. Describe the development of the cerebral cortex, and explain the concepts of brain lateralization and brain plasticity. (pp. 117–119)
  4. Describe research findings related to the existence of sensitive periods in brain development, and note the evidence of brain growth spurts and the need for appropriate stimulation.  (pp. 119–120)
  5. Discuss changes in the organization of sleep and wakefulness between birth and 2 years of age.(p. 120–123)
  6. Discuss the impact of heredity on early physical growth. (p. 123)
  7. Discuss the nutritional needs of infants and toddlers, the advantages of breastfeeding, and the extent to which chubby babies are at risk for later overweight and obesity. (pp. 123–125)
  8. Discuss the impact of severe malnutrition on the development of infants and toddlers, and cite two dietary diseases associated with this condition. (pp. 125–126)
  9. Describe the growth disorder known as nonorganic failure to thrive, noting common symptoms and family circumstances surrounding the disorder. (p. 126)
  10. Explain how infants learn through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, habituation, and imitation. (pp. 126–129)
  11. Describe the sequence of motor development during the first 2 years of life. (pp. 129–130)
  12. Describe the development of reaching and grasping, and explain how early experiences affect these skills. (pp. 132–133)4
  13. Summarize the development of vision in infancy, including depth perception, pattern perception, and face perception. (pp. 133–138)